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Baghdad, for instance, prior to the Mongols, had 36 public libraries and over a hundred book-dealers, some of whom were also publishers employing a corps of copyists [5]. In Marrakech, the Kutubya Mosque was so named, because around Kutubiya or book sellers had assembled their booths around that Mosque erected by the Almohad ruler Abd al-Mumin, and they had given their name to it [7]. Spain alone had seventy public libraries [8]. Adud al-Daula d. The buildings were topped with domes, and comprised an upper and a lower storey with a total, according to the chief official, of rooms In each department, catalogues were placed on a shelf In addition to the central government libraries, there was a huge network of public libraries in most big cities, and prestigious private collections which attracted scholars from all parts of the Muslim world [11].

Writing on the Muslim Spanish libraries, Scott writes:. There was no city of importance without at least one of these treasure-houses of literature. Their shelves were open to every applicant. Catalogues facilitated the examination of the collections and the classification of the various subjects. Many of the volumes were enriched with illuminations of wonderful beauty; the more precious were bound in embossed leather and fragrant woods; some were inlaid with gold and silver. Here were to be found all the learning of the past and all the discoveries of the present age, the philosophy of Athens, the astronomy of Babylon, the science of Alexandria, the results of prolonged observation and experiment on the towers and in the laboratories of Cordova and Seville.

The Mosque was the central focus of intellectual activity and medium of book diffusion. In the Mosques writers and scholars recounted the results of their studies to audiences of young people, other scholars and interested laymen, and as the cultural basis of the intellectual activity was common to all, anyone and everyone could take part in discussion [13].

This intellectual activity spurred book diffusion through the Mosques as explained by Sardar and Davies:. While such a draft naturally had a value, it did not constitute publication. The word used for publication, kharraja, means 'let it go out' or even 'come out' or 'be published'. The author was thus required to present his book to the public.

This he did in the Mosque by oral reading or dictation. Scholars would dictate numerous volumes of their work in the Mosques where the general public gathered to hear them and professional warraqs copied and turned dictations into books. Even when the books were especially commissioned, they would still be published in this way. For example, a prominent ninth-century philologist, al-Farra d. Al-Farra, who lived in Baghdad, agreed. He also announced that he would dictate a book of this nature in the Mosque - and it is in this way that the work was published. The Mosques played another central role, acting as libraries.

One of the noblest traditions long held by the Muslims was to bequeath their manuscripts and book collections, sometimes thousands of volumes, to the Mosques [15]. Pedersen explains that from the beginning, Mosques were not just devoted to worship, but were also schools and seats of learning, and so it was normal that people should give their libraries to the Mosques, and an entire book collection might be transferred to a Mosque as a self-contained library or dar al-kutub [16]. Throughout the Muslim lands, from the Atlantic to the Persian Gulf and beyond, Muslims regarded their places of worship as havens for the safe keeping of their valued books, and so in large numbers, they bequeathed them their collections.

In Al-Qayrawan, the manuscripts were endowed to students by those who sought Allah's favour and His pleasure with them, as was recorded on many such manuscripts [17]. She attached to the Mosque a Madrasa and a library for which she reportedly bought many valuable books and manuscripts [19]. In Aleppo, the largest and probably the oldest Mosque library, the Sufiya, located at the city's Grand Umayyad Mosque, contained a large book collection of which 10, volumes were reportedly bequeathed by the city's most famous ruler, Prince Sayf al-Dawla [20].

Scholars too followed the same path. In Iraq, the Abu Hanifa Mosque had an impressive library, which benefited from the gifts of private collections, amongst which was one by the physician, Yahia Ibn Jazla d. Three scholars, amongst whom was Yaqut, bequeathed their collections as waqf to the Zaidi Mosque library [24].

Most often, this gesture was a mark of gratitude by the scholar towards the Mosque for their upkeep and support [25]. And so grew up the great universities of Cordova and Toledo to which flocked Christians as well as Moslems from all over the world, and the famous al-Azhar in Cairo, which after almost a thousand years is still the most famous educational centre of the Mohammedan world.

If the majority of Mosques had modest libraries, some contained absolutely rich collections, including some rare and inestimable collections. Many scientific works could have found their way into Mosques, according to Sibai, as a gesture of gratitude by scientists for being granted material comfort, free accommodation and stationary [27]. Indeed, it was common for Mosques to shelter and assist travelling scholars.

Al-Ghazali and al-Baghdadi lived for a period of time in one of the minarets of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus [28], whilst Ibn al-Haytham is said to have resided for a while in a qubba domed room above one of the main entrances of the Al-Azhar Mosque [29]. The Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem, Islam's third holiest shrine, had four libraries. It had several book collections in the Nahawiya and Ashrafyia Madrasas, and a library of even greater stature: the Farisiya Madrasa. It developed rapidly into an important academy for religious and secular studies and included a large book collection which was scattered among the Mosque's four Madrasas.

One of these was the Nassiryia Madrasa, founded by Nasr al-Maqdisi, also known as the Ghazzaliya in a tribute to the philosopher al-Ghazali d. Ibn Tulun Mosque in Old Cairo, eventually, became one of the centres of higher education in Cairo [33], and Ibrahim observed that the library of this Mosque contained some of the most celebrated works on medicine [34]. The Qarawiyyin of Fes had three separate libraries, the most prestigious of which being the Abu Inan Library, also known as the Ilmyia library, whose original building is still standing [35].

An avid reader and collector, the Sultan deposited in his newly founded library books on various subjects that included religion, science, intellect and language, and he also appointed a librarian to take charge of the affairs of the library [36].

International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management

Other Moroccan towns also had large book collections in their Mosques [37]. Pedersen refers to the large numbers of manuscripts that are found in the Mosques of Zaytuna in Tunis, Tlemcen in Algeria and Rabat in Morocco [38]. It had several collections totalling in the tens of thousands of books. It is said that most rulers of the Hafsid dynasty vied with each other for the prestige associated with maintaining and strengthening the book collection at the Mosque; which at some point exceeded , volumes [39]. Also in Tunisia, in Al-Qayrawan, the Great Mosque has preserved some of the remnants of its great intellectual apogee and memory of its scholars through books and documents they wrote in their own hands, or that they assigned others to write [40].

The richest collections of manuscripts assembled in the Mosque University of al-Qayrawan are those dating from its Aghlabid times 9th Century CE [41]. These documents which included unique cultural data formed part of the curriculum taught at the great Mosque then [42]. The collection in the ancient library of Al-Qayrawan is in large part written on parchment, and is the largest and best known collection in the Arab Islamic world [43]. Mosque libraries also included large numbers of scientific works, and manuscripts no-one suspected they would possess.

Also, in the same Mosque library, the same Abd al-Wahab states that it holds works such as Pliny's on botany which was translated from Latin [45]. The Ahmadi Mosque in Tanta Egypt included manuscripts on 25 different subjects including medicine, arithmetic, algebra, and the art of dye making [46]. The Zaytuna had a library, al-Abdaliyah which had a large collection of rare manuscripts and which attracted men of learning from all parts [47].

The Turkish dynasties which expelled the Spaniards restored and expanded the Zaytuna Mosques, its libraries and Madrasa and made it again a high centre of Islamic culture [49]. The Ottoman Bey, Ahmad Pasha I, did not just revitalise the Ahmadiya Library, he also organised and generously supported education at the Zaytuna, besides depositing large numbers of books in the Mosque [50]. New courses were introduced in including physics, political economy and French [51]. Scores of figures of Arab - Islamic culture received their education at Al-Zaytuna.

The rulers played a central role in the supply and maintenance of such libraries. Al-Manstansiryyah of Baghdad had a rich library made of great parts of books transferred from the very private library of the Caliph [52]. In Damascus, Nur Eddin Zangi gave large collections of books to the many libraries of the city [53], whilst in Cairo al Qadi al-Fadil presented his schools with , volumes on various subjects for the use of students [54].

In Spain, the Reyes of Taifas, Princes who succeeded the Umayyad dynasty in the early 11th century, also became celebrated for their libraries at Saragossa, Granada, Toledo, and elsewhere [57]. He engaged copyists and bookbinders, and had agents sent to every province to procure books for him by purchase and by transcription [59]. Private libraries also thrived. Under Almohad rule, in Morocco, lived the famed 13th century Maktaba of Ibn Tarawa, a great amateur chronicler, besides being a manuscript writer; the Maktaba of al-Qaysi and the Maqtaba of Ibn as-Suqr, the main librarian of the imperial library, his collection requiring five full camel loads to be carried [60].

Khizanat Sabur was established in the 11th century by Abu Nasr Sabbur b. Ardashir the minister under the Buwwayhids in Baghdad. The library is recorded to have been a centre for eminent persons and learned men among whom discussion and debate often took place [61]. Amongst the scholars of Islam, there was none who could be found without a collection of books of his own.

Shalaby concluded that the number of these libraries was equal to the number of learned people [62]. Both were in their thousands. The library of the physician Ibn al-Mutran, had, according to Ibn Abi Usaybi'a, more than 3, volumes; and three copyists worked constantly in his service [63]. Also we hear of a private library in Baghdad, in the 9th century, which required camels to move it from one place to another [64].


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A more impressive aspect of Islamic libraries was their organisation and management; remarkable as it proceeded out of not very much in terms of precedents. Descriptions of both public and private libraries speak of the classification of books and their arrangement in separate cases or even in separate rooms in the Baghdad libraries [65]. Great care, says Olga Pinto, was taken concerning the buildings which were to serve as public libraries.

Some of them, like those of Shiraz, Cordova and Cairo, were placed in separate structures, with many rooms for different uses: galleries with shelves in which the books were kept, rooms where the visitors could read and study, rooms set apart for those in charge of making copies of manuscripts and rooms which served for literary assemblies [66].

There was accurate cataloguing of all contents to help readers. One single private collection required 10 volumes [67], whilst in Spain, the catalogue for the works in al Hakam's library is alleged to have consisted of 44 volumes [68]. The contents of each section of a bookshelf were also registered on a strip of paper attached to the shelf outside; which bore indications of works which were incomplete or lacking in some part [69].

Cataloguing of manuscripts was the norm, most particularly in the larger libraries where it was necessary to aid accessibility, and to give librarians control over the quality and quantity of their resources. The word Sunni comes from the word sunnah , which means the teachings and actions or examples of the Islamic Sahara and the prophet, Muhammad. In many countries, overwhelming majorities of Muslims are Sunnis, so that they simply refer to themselves as "Sunnis" and do not use Muslim as a label.

The Sunnis believe that Muhammad did not specifically appoint a successor to lead the Muslim ummah community before his death, however they approve of the private election of the first companion Abu Baker which is also known as a small group of Muslims referred to pre-Islamic customs to allow Abu Bakr to seize power at Saqifa after Muhammad's death. After the fall of the Ottoman Empire in , there has never been another caliph as widely recognized in the Muslim world.


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In recent times, followers of the classical Sunni schools of jurisprudence and kalam rationalistic theology on one hand and Salafis , who follow a literalist reading of early Islamic sources, on the other, have laid competing claims to represent orthodox Sunni Islam. In addition to believing in the authority of the Quran and teachings of Muhammad, Shia believe that Muhammad's family, the Ahl al-Bayt the "People of the House" , including his descendants known as Imams , have special spiritual and political authority over the community [27] and believe that Ali ibn Abi Talib , Muhammad's cousin and son-in-law, was the first of these Imams and was the rightful successor to Muhammad, and thus reject the legitimacy of the first three Rashidun caliphs.

The Shia Islamic faith is broad and includes many different groups. There are various Shia theological beliefs, schools of jurisprudence, philosophical beliefs, and spiritual movements. Muslim groups who either ascribe divine characteristics to some figures of Islamic history usually a member of Muhammad 's family, Ahl al-Bayt or hold beliefs deemed deviant by mainstream Shi'i theology were called Ghulat.

Kharijite literally, "those who seceded" is a general term embracing a variety of Muslim sects which, while originally supporting the Caliphate of Ali, later on fought against him and eventually succeeded in his martyrdom while he was praying in the mosque of Kufa. While there are few remaining Kharijite or Kharijite-related groups, the term is sometimes used to denote Muslims who refuse to compromise with those with whom they disagree.

The major Kharijite sub-sect today is the Ibadi. The sect developed out of the 7th century Islamic sect of the Kharijites. While Ibadi Muslims maintain most of the beliefs of the original Kharijites, they have rejected the more aggressive methods. It is seen as that aspect of Islamic teaching that deals with the purification of inner self. By focusing on the more spiritual aspects of religion, Sufis strive to obtain direct experience of God by making use of "intuitive and emotional faculties" that one must be trained to use. Islamic schools of jurisprudence, known as madhhabs , differ in the methodology they use to derive their rulings from the Quran and hadith.

In terms of religious jurisprudence fiqh , Sunnism contains several schools of thought madhhab such as:. Some consider it as a fifth madhhab, but some do not. The Salafi movement , a reform branch or revivalist movement. The Ahl al-Hadith movement. Followers call themselves Ahl-i Hadith or Salafi, while others consider them to be a branch of the Salafi or Wahhabi movement. The fiqh or jurisprudence of Ibadis is relatively simple.

Absolute authority is given to the Qur'an and hadith; new innovations accepted on the basis of qiyas , or analogical reasoning, were rejected as bid'ah by the Ibadis. That differs from the majority of Sunnis [46] but agrees with most Shi'ites [47] and the Zahiri and early Hanbali schools of Sunnism. Aqidah is an Islamic term meaning " creed ", doctrine, or article of faith. Major themes of theological controversies in Islam have included predestination and free will, the nature of the Quran , the nature of the divine attributes , apparent and esoteric meaning of scripture, and the role of dialectical reasoning in the Islamic doctrine.

Sunni theological traditions. Theology of Twelvers 3. Other Shia concepts of Aqidah. There are many schools of Kalam, the main ones being the Ash'ari and Maturidi schools in Sunni Islam. Ash'arism is a school of theology founded in the 10th century by Abu al-Hasan al-Ash'ari. The Asharite view was that comprehension of the unique nature and characteristics of God were beyond human capability.

Maturidism is a school of theology founded by Abu Mansur Al Maturidi , which is a close variant of the Ash'ari school. Points which differ are the nature of belief and the place of human reason. The Maturidis state that belief iman does not increase nor decrease but remains static; it is piety taqwa which increases and decreases. The Ash'aris say that belief does in fact increase and decrease.

The Maturidis say that the unaided human mind is able to find out that some of the more major sins such as alcohol or murder are evil without the help of revelation. The Ash'aris say that the unaided human mind is unable to know if something is good or evil, lawful or unlawful, without divine revelation. Traditionalist theology , sometimes referred to as the Athari school, derives its name from the word "tradition" as a translation of the Arabic word hadith or from the Arabic word athar , meaning "narrations".

The traditionalist creed is to avoid delving into extensive theological speculation. They rely on the Qur'an, the Sunnah, and sayings of the Sahaba, seeing this as the middle path where the attributes of Allah are accepted without questioning their nature bi la kayf. Ahmad bin Hanbal is regarded as the leader of the traditionalist school of creed. The term athari has been historically synonymous with Salafi. The central aspect of traditionalist theology is its definition of Tawhid , meaning literally unification or asserting the oneness of Allah.

Madrasa - Wikipedia

Murji'ah was a name for an early politico-religious movement which came to refer to all those who identified faith iman with belief to the exclusion of acts. Qadariyyah is an originally derogatory term designating early Islamic theologians who asserted that humans possess free will, whose exercise makes them responsible for their actions, justifying divine punishment and absolving God of responsibility for evil in the world. Mu'tazili theology originated in the 8th century in al-Basrah when Wasil ibn Ata left the teaching lessons of Hasan al-Basri after a theological dispute.

He and his followers expanded on the logic and rationalism of Greek philosophy , seeking to combine them with Islamic doctrines and show that the two were inherently compatible. The Mu'tazili debated philosophical questions such as whether the Qur'an was created or eternal, whether evil was created by God, the issue of predestination versus free will , whether God's attributes in the Qur'an were to be interpreted allegorically or literally, and whether sinning believers would have eternal punishment in hell.

Jahmis were the alleged followers of the early Islamic theologian Jahm bin Safwan who associate himself with Al-Harith ibn Surayj. He was an exponent of extreme determinism according to which a man acts only metaphorically in the same way in which the sun acts or does something when it sets. It has been retained by all branches of Isma'ilism and its Druze offshoot. Alevism , Bektashism and folk religion , Hurufis and Alawites practice a similar system of interpretation.

Many slaves brought from Africa to the Western hemisphere were Muslim. Although it is thought that the Islam of slaves did not survive past , [62] the early twentieth century saw the rise of distinct Islamic movements within the African-American community, such as the Moorish Science Temple of America and the Nation of Islam.

They sought to ascribe Islamic heritage to African-Americans, thereby giving much emphasis on racial aspects [63] see Black nationalism. These Black Muslim movements often differed greatly in doctrine from mainstream. They included:. The Ahmadiyya movement was founded in India in by Mirza Ghulam Ahmad , who claimed to be the promised Messiah " Second Coming of Christ " , the Mahdi awaited by the Muslims and a "subordinate" prophet to Muhammad whose job was to restore the original Sharia given to Muhammad by guiding or rallying disenchanted Ummah back to Islam and thwart attacks on Islam by its opponents.

The followers are divided into two groups, the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community and the Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement for the Propagation of Islam , the former believing that Ghulam Ahmad was a non-law bearing prophet and the latter believing that he was only a religious reformer though a prophet in an allegorical sense. Ahmadis consider themselves Muslims and claim to practice the pristine form of Islam as re-established with the teachings of Ghulam Ahmad.

In many Islamic countries the Ahmadis have been defined as heretics and non-Muslim and subjected to persecution and often systematic oppression. It has initiated forums for interfaith dialogue. Islam portal. Islamism is a set of political ideologies , derived from various fundamentalist views, which hold that Islam is not only a religion but a political system that should govern the legal, economic and social imperatives of the state. Many Islamists do not refer to themselves as such and it is not a single particular movement.

Religious views and ideologies of its adherents vary, and they may be Sunni Islamists or Shia Islamists depending upon their beliefs. Islamist groups include groups such as Al-Qaeda , the organizer of the September 11, attacks and perhaps the most prominent; and the Muslim Brotherhood , the largest and perhaps the oldest.

Although violence is often employed by some organizations, most Islamist movements are nonviolent. With its various branches, it is the largest Sunni movement in the Arab world, and an affiliate is often the largest opposition party in many Arab nations.

The legacy of Muhammad

The Muslim Brotherhood is not concerned with theological differences, accepting Muslims of any of the four Sunni schools of thought. It is the world's oldest and largest Islamist group. Its aims are to re-establish the Caliphate and in the mean time push for more Islamisation of society. The Brotherhood's stated goal is to instill the Qur'an and sunnah as the "sole reference point for Today, sister organizations with similar objectives and ideological approaches exist in India Jamaat-e-Islami Hind , Bangladesh Jamaat-e-Islami Bangladesh , Kashmir Jamaat-e-Islami Kashmir , and Sri Lanka , and there are "close brotherly relations" with the Islamist movements and missions "working in different continents and countries", particularly those affiliated with the Muslim Brotherhood Akhwan-al-Muslimeen.

It opposes Westernization—including secularization, capitalism, socialism, or such practices as interest based banking, and favours an Islamic economic order and Caliphate. Liberal and progressive movements have in common a religious outlook which depends mainly on Ijtihad or re-interpretations of scriptures. Liberal Muslims at thought have led to the birth of certain small denominations from primarily unaffiliated followers who believe in greater autonomy of the individual in interpretation of scripture, a critical examination of religious texts , gender equality, human rights, LGBT rights and a modern view of culture, tradition, and other ritualistic practices in Islam.

Zikri Mahdavis, or Zikris , are an offshoot of the Mahdavi movement. Non-denominational Muslims is an umbrella term that has been used for and by Muslims who do not belong to or do not self-identify with a specific Islamic denomination. Tolu-e-Islam "Resurgence of Islam" is a non-denominational Muslim organization based in Pakistan, with members throughout the world. This is in contrast to orthodox Muslims, who consider hadiths essential to the Islamic faith.

Ahl-i Hadith is a movement which emerged in the Indian subcontinent in the midth century. Followers call themselves Ahl-i Hadith or Salafi , while others consider them to be a branch of the Salafi or Wahhabi movement. Politics portal. The Salafi movement is an ultra-conservative [92] reform [93] movement within Sunni Islam that emerged in the second half of the 19th century and advocated a return to the traditions of the "devout ancestors" the salaf.

The doctrine can be summed up as taking "a fundamentalist approach to Islam , emulating the Prophet Muhammad and his earliest followers— al-salaf al-salih , the 'pious forefathers' They reject religious innovation, or bid'ah , and support the implementation of sharia Islamic law. In recent years, the Salafi doctrine has often been correlated with the jihad of terrorist organizations such as Al Qaeda and those groups in favor of killing innocent civilians. Islamic Modernism , also sometimes referred to as Modernist Salafism , [98] [99] [] [] [] is a movement that has been described as "the first Muslim ideological response" [] attempting to reconcile Islamic faith with modern Western values such as nationalism , democracy , civil rights , rationality , equality , and progress.

The Wahhabi movement was created by Muhammad ibn Abd-al-Wahhab in the Arabian peninsula, and was instrumental in the rise of the House of Saud to power. It is a strict orthodox form and a branch of sunni Islam, with fundamentalist views, believing in a strict literal interpretation of the Quran. The terms Wahhabism and Salafism are often used interchangeably, although the word Wahhabi is specific for followers of Muhammad ibn Abd-al-Wahhab. Wahhabism has been accused of being "a source of global terrorism" [] [] and causing disunity in Muslim communities, and criticized for its followers' destruction of historic sites.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Islamic schools and branches. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Profession of faith Prayer Fasting Alms-giving Pilgrimage. Texts and sciences. Culture and society. Related topics. See also: Succession to Muhammad. Further information: History of Islam.

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Part of a series on Sunni Islam. Five Pillars. Rightly-Guided Caliphs. Sunni schools of law. Sunni schools of theology. Contemporary movements. Holy sites. Jerusalem Mecca Medina Damascus. Literature Kutub al-Sittah. Main article: Sunni Islam. Part of a series on Shia Islam. Beliefs and practices. Holy days. Ahl al-Kisa. Muhammad Ali Fatimah Hasan Husayn. Holy women.

The foundations of Islam

Main articles: Shia Islam and Imamah Shia doctrine. Further information: List of extinct Shia sects. Main article: Ghulat. Main article: Kharijite. Sufi orders. List of sufis. Notable early Notable modern Singers. Topics in Sufism. Main articles: Sufism and list of Sufi orders. Shahada Salat Raka'ah Qibla Turbah. Sunnah salat Tahajjud Tarawih.

Marriage Contract Mahr. Riba Murabaha Takaful Sukuk. Dhabihah Alcohol Pork. Jihad Hudna Istijarah asylum Prisoners of war. Main articles: Madh'hab and Fiqh. Main articles: Aqidah and Schools of Islamic theology. Five Pillars of Islam. Shahada Salah Sawm Zakat Hajj. Other schools of theology. Distinct views. Prophethood Jesus Jihad Evolution.

AAU Talks: The State of Online Universities - Case Study of Islamic Online University

Key Literature. Organizational structure. Key texts. Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam Iqbal s. Principles of State and Government Asad Ma'alim fi al-Tariq "Milestones" Qutb Heads of state. Key ideologues. Criticism of Islamism. Main articles: Liberal Islam and Ijtihad. Sab'u Masajid , Saudi Arabia. Ideology and influences. Founders and key figures.

Notable universities. Related ideologies. Associated organizations. Retrieved 27 February Tafsir al-Kabir, Volume Oxford University Press. Islam: The Key Concepts. Tarikh Islam, Volume 1. Tarikh Islam, Volume 2. University of California, Berkeley.