e-book The Lesser of Evils for the Greater Good (The Chronicles ofMarcus the son of Simon Peter Book 3)

Free download. Book file PDF easily for everyone and every device. You can download and read online The Lesser of Evils for the Greater Good (The Chronicles ofMarcus the son of Simon Peter Book 3) file PDF Book only if you are registered here. And also you can download or read online all Book PDF file that related with The Lesser of Evils for the Greater Good (The Chronicles ofMarcus the son of Simon Peter Book 3) book. Happy reading The Lesser of Evils for the Greater Good (The Chronicles ofMarcus the son of Simon Peter Book 3) Bookeveryone. Download file Free Book PDF The Lesser of Evils for the Greater Good (The Chronicles ofMarcus the son of Simon Peter Book 3) at Complete PDF Library. This Book have some digital formats such us :paperbook, ebook, kindle, epub, fb2 and another formats. Here is The CompletePDF Book Library. It's free to register here to get Book file PDF The Lesser of Evils for the Greater Good (The Chronicles ofMarcus the son of Simon Peter Book 3) Pocket Guide.

The Holy Spirit, in likeness of a dove, is about to alight on the head of Jesus. It is the usual portrayal of Jesus nailed to the cross, in this case a low structure. At its foot lies a skull, emblematic of death. To the left of the cross stands Mary; to the right his disciple John. Tiberius Claudius Nero, the third Roman emperor, reigned 23 years and some days. He was born of the the aristocratic patricia Claudian family, and was surnamed Nero. In childhood he was precocious and crafty.

He was nine years of age when his father died. On attaining manhood he married Agrippina, the daughter of Marcus Agrippus. Though not very much disposed to leave his wife for she was pregnant , he was compelled to marry Julia, the daughter of Augustus. He lost his brother Drusus in Germany, and was given the power of tribune for five years in which he was to conquer that country. Believing that the defeat of Varus resulted from lack of forethought and through negligence, he did not act without counsel and consideration. After the expiration of two years Tiberius marched out of Germany to Rome, where he was given a triumph.

Although for some time he refused the sovereignty, and sought to live an honest and industrious life, he finally accepted the office of emperor. When some of his officers advised him to burden the land and the people with tribute and taxes, he replied: It becomes a good shepherd to shear his sheep, but not to swallow them. He suppressed the customs and manners of the Egyptians and the Jews, expelled the sorcerers and soothsayers, and scrupulously did away with turmoil, murder and robbery.

For a period of two years after assuming the rule he did not set foot beyond the gates, and in the following year, not beyond the suburbs. However, as he was afterwards deprived of his two sons, namely, Germanicus in Syria and Drusus at Rome, he went to Campania; and as he now embraced the freedom of private life and removed himself from the eyes of the city, he now poured forth his long concealed lust; and because of his excessive drinking of wine, he was considered a drunkard and an alcoholic by the masses.

He was of an ungenerous and jealous disposition, and filled with excessive pride. He had no paternal love, either for his natural son Drusus, nor for Germanicus who had been adopted by him. Tiberius had a large strong body, not ill built; his chest and shoulders were broad, and his limbs down to his feet were regular, well proportioned, and white.

His hair was long, reaching beyond the nape of his neck, which gave him a barbarian appearance. He had an earnest expression and large eyes, and carried his head erect as he walked. He was often calm and silent. He was very fond of the liberal arts and wrote several poems. At the end of a reign of 23 years, during which he was neither reckoned among the very good nor the very bad, he finally died in the village of Lucullus at the age of seventy-eight. Some say that he died of a mild and enervating poison administered by Caius. The people rejoiced in his death. Tiberius Claudius Nero Caesar, son of T.

He was tall and strongly made, handsome, and had large eyes. He was carefully educated in Greek and Latin. Though not without military courage, he was timid of character, jealous and suspicious, and cruel in consequence after he acquired power. In later life he indulged his lust in every way imaginable, although he affected a regard to decency and externals. Much against his will Augustus compelled him to divorce Vipsania Agrippina, and to marry Julia, widow of Agrippa and daughter of the emperor.

With her Tiberius did not, however, live long in harmony. Augustus employed him in various military campaigns. In 15 Drusus and his brother Tiberius engaged in warfare with Rhaeti. In 13 Tiberius was consul with P. In 11, the same year in which he married Julia, and while his brother Drusus was fighting against the Germans, Tiberius was warring against the Dalmatians and Pannonians.

In the year 9 Drusus was mortally wounded by a fall from his horse, and Augustus sent Tiberius to him. Tiberius returned to the war in Germany, and in the year 7 he was consul a second time. He returned to Rome in 2 CE, his troublesome wife Julia, who had been banished, dying in the meantime. After the death of his two sons, Augustus adopted Tiberius, with the view of leaving him the imperial power; but at the same time he required him to adopt Germanicus, the son of his brother Drusus, though Tiberius had a son Drusus by his wife Vipsania.

From the year of his adoption to the death of Augustus, Tiberius was in command of the Roman armies, though he visited Rome occasionally. In the year 12 he was given a triumph at Rome for his German and Dalmatian victories. On the death of Augustus, Tiberius at once went to Rome, taking up the imperial power without opposition, though affecting some reluctance. The death of Germanicus in the east later relieved him of all fear of a rival claimant to the throne.

Many believed that Germanicus was poisoned by his order. The tyranny of Tiberius increased, and many distinguished senators were put to death on charges of treason. He gave his complete confidence to Sejanus, who for many years possessed the real government of the state. In 26 Tiberius left Rome, never to return. He withdrew into Campania to escape criticism and to indulge his propensities in private.

In order to give still greater secrecy to his conduct, he took up his residence in the island of Capri, a short distance from the Campanian coast. In the meantime his mother Livia died, leaving Tiberius almost entirely without restraint; but he finally turned on Sejanus, whom he caused to be executed and dragged about the streets.

For the remainder of his reign, Rome continued to be the scene of tragic occurrences. Tiberius died on the 16th of March in the year 37 at the Villa of Lucallus, in Misenum. He was 78 years of age and had reigned 22 years. He was succeeded by Caius Caligula , son of Germanicus. Tiberius wrote a brief commentary of his own life, the only book that the emperor Domitian studied; Suetonius made use of it for his life of Tiberius. Tiberius also wrote Greek poems, and a lyric poem on the death of L. Valerius, the Roman procurator sent to Judea by the emperor Tiberius, was the first to begin the sale of the high-priestly office.

While procurator he appointed and deposed one high priest after another. First he deposed Annas Amanum and put Ismael Hismaelis the son of Jabus Iabi in his place; but not long afterwards he also deposed the latter, and appointed Eleazar, son of Annas the priest, as high priest. After the expiration of his year he deposed him also, and appointed Simon, son of Cemithis, to the position; but he also remained in office only one year.

Select a book of the Bible

Having deposed him, Valerius finally appointed Caiaphas Caypham , a haughty, proud, strange, fortunate and envious man. The evangelist has two of these bishops in mind when he says: Jesus was seized in the garden; and shortly the servants brought him before Annas,[Annas was a high priest of the Jews along with Caiaphas, his son-in-law. He was first appointed to that office by Cyrenius, proconsul of Syria, about 7 or 8 CE, but was afterwards deprived of it.

After various changes the office was given to Joseph, also called Caiaphas, son-in-law of Annas, about 25 CE, who continued in office until 36 or 37 CE. But Annas, being his father-in-law, and having great influence and authority, could with propriety be still termed high priest along with Caiaphas. It was before him that Jesus was first taken on the night of the seizure.

And Annas sent Jesus to Caiaphas. And to make this confession of Christ appear even more wicked, Caiaphas tore his own garments. Moreover, in order to arouse the people to condemn Jesus, Caiaphas cried, He is guilty of death! By his persuasive speaking as the sacred history of the Gospel holds Christ our Lord was condemned to death. Jesus Christ suffered in the th year of the world and in the 18th year of the reign of Tiberius while two Roman consuls governed; being in the month which the Hebrews call Nisan, and we call April.

To satisfy the envy of the priests, he was sold by Judas, one of his disciples; after which he was seized, accused, and, at the instance of the judge, was mocked and scourged. And they spit in his face and struck him; crowned him with thorns, and finally nailed him to a cross. And they reproached him with bitter words. And when he cried with a loud voice and willingly gave up the Spirit, the earth quaked, the sun darkened, and the veil of the temple was torn asunder. And when Longinus, the soldier, pierced the breast of the deceased with his spear, a mixture of blood and water flowed from the wound; from this the sacrament of the church in general had its beginning and origin.

Christ was then taken from the cross and buried, and as Jonah came forth from the belly of the whale, so Jesus rose from the dead out of the bowels of the earth on the third day. He often appeared to his disciples, and in their midst and in their presence he ascended to heaven. And not without reason did Christ suffer at Jerusalem; for this was the city ordained for the sacrifice, in the center of the inhabited world; but he also suffered outside its walls, so that he made the sacrifice of his body not alone for his people, but for the pagans as well.

Herod Antipas, son of Herod the Great, governed Galilee, after his brother Archelaus; and he ruled for 24 years. After the expulsion of Archelaus, the kingdom of the Jews was divided into four parts, and Galilee was given to Herod. He was a most unkind and cruel man, and showed a murderous disposition toward the citizens. He was a murderer of the nobility, and a savage toward his associates, a robber toward the inhabitants; and in the extermination of the people he spared neither his own children nor strangers, nor his own people.

He ignored and dishonored everything; for he abolished the priesthood of the Jews and destroyed their laws and ordinances. And when he espoused the wife of his brother Philip, contrary to the law, and Saint John the Baptist reproached him for it, he wanted to kill him; but he feared the people, for John, as the evangelist states, was regarded by many as a true prophet.

However, he caused him to be seized and imprisoned, and not long before the death of Christ he caused him to be beheaded. Finally he was ordered to come to Rome by Caius the emperor, and was found guilty of many penal offenses, and was banished to Lyons, in Gaul. There he ended his life in misery; but his wife, who was a sister of Agrippa, and whom Caius loved very much, was given her freedom and was given permission to return home; but she followed her husband into exile, saying she did not want to leave her husband after having lived happily with him.

And afterwards Caius gave the country of Galilee to Herod Agrippa, who from that time on held three fourths of the divided region. He married Herodias, the wife of his half-brother Herod Philip, after she had divorced her first husband. He had been previously married to a daughter of the Arabian prince Aretas, who left him in disgust at this new alliance. Aretas then immediately invaded the dominion of Antipas, and defeated the army that was opposed to him. In 38 CE, after the death of Tiberius, Antipas went to Rome to solicit from Caligula Caius the title of king, which had just been bestowed upon his nephew Herod Agrippa; but through the intrigues of Agrippa, who was high in the favor of the Roman emperor, Antipas was deprived of his dominions and sent into exile at Lyons in 39 CE.

He was subsequently removed to Spain where he died. It was before him also that Jesus was sent by Pontius Pilate at Jerusalem, as belonging to his jurisdiction, on account of his supposed Galilean origin. In the land of Judea there were three sects of Jews, separated from the common life and thought of the others. One of those sects was the Pharisees, which originated in the time of Ptolemy Philadelphus, and which in these times as we may infer from the Gospels was, by reason of its profound sanctity, held in high esteem by the Jews at Jerusalem.

They wore parchment inscriptions on their foreheads, while on their left hands they wore the Ten Commandments, written in commemoration of the Law. They also wore a wide band of thorns, designed to prick them as a reminder of the divine commandments. They attributed God and his divine Providence to their forebears and ancestors, and acknowledged no contradictions. They devised ways to harmonize apparent inconsistencies between the Law and the Prophets, assigning to the oral traditions a place of authority side by side with the written law, regarding the former as an interpretation of the latter.

They were very much opposed to our Lord Christ, and were accessories in his death. The Pharisees formed one of the most conspicuous and powerful sects among the Jews in the time of Jesus. Under foreign rule, and more especially under the Syrian i. The Pharisees were this party, and as their name implies, separated themselves from the rest. Much of their influence with the people was no doubt due to their political position.

It was the Pharisees who organized desperate resistance against the Romans, which finally led to the dispersion of the whole nation. As the Pharisees were national in politics, so they were orthodox in religion; and in opposition to the other two sects, the Sadducees and the Essenes, they stood among the people as the true expounders of the Law.

In the time of Jesus, however, their orthodoxy was considered by some to have devolved into mere formalism. The principal points of difference between the Pharisees and Sadducees were the doctrine of the immortality of the soul and the future reward or punishment; the doctrine of the divine Providence acting side by side with the free will of man; and the doctrine of an oral tradition descending from Moses and involving the same authority as the written law—all of which doctrines the Pharisees accepted and the Sadducees rejected.

Teaching that God had given to Moses on Mount Sinai an oral explanation of the proper application of the written Law, and had commanded him to transmit this explanation by work of mouth, the Pharisees ended by placing the oral explanation above the written law. And thus they preferred the tradition to the law itself.

They were also particular in avoiding anything that the law declared unclean. The Sadducees were the second sect, but not of the same sanctity nor held in as high esteem as the Pharisees. They did not believe in divine Providence, but said that God is an observer of all things, and that it rested in the will of man to do good or evil. They denied the incarnation and the existence of angels, and believed that the soul died with the body. They accepted solely the five books of Moses.

The Sadducees were serious and strict, but not spiritual among themselves. The best theory is that the sect was derived from Zadok, the famous high priest whom Solomon appointed to succeed the deposed Abiathar. The Sadducees were a small party of limited influence, and a rationalistic turn of mind. They were men of position, and probably of wealth—world-minded, and with a superficial interest in religion. They were forerunners of the modern reform Jews.

Their theology embraced four principal tenets: 1 Denial of the divinity, and consequent authority of the oral law; 2 acceptance of the teachings of Moses alone, and rejection of the later books of the Old Testament; 3 death of the soul with the body, in consequence of which they denied the resurrection, the doctrine of future rewards and punishments, and belief in angels or spirits; 4 that man had the most absolute moral freedom, for upon this was dependent the moral quality of his actions. They were also, according to the gospels, determined foes of Jesus.

Annas and Caiaphas were Sadducees. The Essenes were the third sect. In all respects they led the lives of monks or hermits; and avoided wedlock, not because they disapproved of it or attached no importance to childbearing, but to avoid the lasciviousness of women, believing that none of them are faithful to their husbands.

They associated with each other in friendship, disparaging wealth and holding their possessions in common as brothers, as though they were sharers in one common patrimony. They did not respect anointing, considering it uncleanly; for they always wore clean white clothing. They had curators and stewards who administered their common property; but no certain abode, dwelling in any place.

They did not change their clothes nor shoes until entirely torn or worn out by time. They were opposed to spiritual exercises and divine worship. They did not speak of profane matters before sunrise. At sunrise they prayed, and until the fifth hour they labored. After that they assembled in their white linen clothes, washed in cold water, and went to their meals, of which they did not partake without a prayer having been first offered to God. Grace was repeated after the meal.

They operated their establishment with great industry, and no clamor, disturbance, or noise was heard while they worked, for they observed strict silence. Their court was attended by no less than persons. Its judgment was final and conclusive. They held the day of rest inviolate; made no fire, nor cooked on that day, nor moved any vessel from its place; nor evacuated their digested food. On other days, when about to free themselves of digested food, they dug a hole into the earth with an axe, and covered themselves round about with their lowered garments so that they might not offend the divine rays of the sun with indecency.

Having eased themselves, they filled the hole with the earth they had dug up. While he lived, Herod Antipas honored these Essenes or Essei. V, chap. VIII, pars. The Essenes are not mentioned in the Old Testament, for they lived in isolated communities, and thus Jesus and his apostles did not encounter them.

They represent the mystic and ascetic forms of Judaism, while the Pharisees represented the orthodox, and the Sadducees the rationalistic forms. Their name has never been sat in office isfactorily explained. Some believe it means "the retiring," or "the Puritans;" others, "the healers. They believed in an unconditional Providence and the immortality of the soul, but not in the resurrection of the body; in future rewards to the righteous and the future punishment of the wicked. Their celibacy, sun-homage, and abstinence from sacrifice, were their non-Jewish qualities derived from the Zoroastrian religion; to these must be added their magical rites and intense striving after purity.

In their life they were noted for their kindness to the sick and the poor. They opposed slavery; made medicines from herbs which were healing; and were modest and retiring in manner. According to Philo their general conduct was directed by three rules — "the love of God, the love of virtue, and the love of man. The last sentence of this paragraph is not found in the German edition of the Chronicle. In fact, it is followed by another sentence, also not found in the German edition, which the current editor cannot quite make sense of.

It runs in Latin thus: nec inhonestus? Veronica, a woman of Jerusalem, disciple of Christ, and esteemed for her piety and virtue, was at this time called to Rome with the handkerchief of Christ by Tiberius the emperor, through his strongest man, Volusianus. For this same emperor as some relate had been seized with a serious malady.

As soon as he had received this holy woman and had touched the picture of Christ, he was cured of all illness. For this reason the emperor afterwards held this Veronica in great esteem, and she remained at Rome with the apostles Peter and Paul to her end. Pope Clement erected church to her. This is the woman who suffered with an issue of blood as the Gospels state , and was cured of it by the Lord after touching the hem of his garment. At the time of his suffering she received from him as a token of his love this picture of his face.

This same picture, impressed on cloth, Veronica bequeathed to Pope Clement and his successors in her will. To this day it is viewed with great devotion and contemplation at St. The name of the image was insensibly transferred to the woman of whom the legend is related. According to the active imagination of the people, she was Veronica, or Berenice, the niece of King Herod, being the daughter of his sister Salome, who had been devoted to the pomps and vanities of the world, but on witnessing the sufferings and meekness of Jesus, was suddenly converted.

The miraculous power of the sacred image impressed upon her napkin being universally recognized, she was sent for by the emperor Tiberius to cure him of a mortal malady; but since the emperor had already died by the time she arrived, she remained at Rome with Peter and Paul until she suffered martyrdom under Nero; or, according to another legend, she came to Europe in the same vessel with Lazarus and Mary Magdalene, and suffered martyrdom either in Provence or Aquitaine. According to Anna Jameson from whose work the above is taken , these legends have been rejected by the Church since the eleventh century; but the memory of this compassionate woman, and the legend of the miraculous image, lingered on in the imagination of the people.

Xenarchus, a peripatetic philosopher, worthy of commemoration, and whom Strabo the historian heard in his youth, died at Seleucia in Cicilia during the time of the emperor Tiberius. And, as it is said, he did not reside there for long but went to Alexandria, Athens, or Rome to study. To old age he was always held in great esteem. Augustus the emperor favored him. But not long before this time and since his death, his works were lost. He taught successively at Alexandria, Athens and Rome, where he enjoyed the friendship of Augustus. Philo the Jew, a native of Alexandria, and a highly educated man, was held in great esteem during these times.

He wrote many excellent and daring things, and with his skill and versatility he silenced the evil writings of Appianus Appionis against the Jews. Many have spoken of his versat in office ility, saying that either Philo followed Plato, or Plato followed Philo. He finally came to Rome and had speech and dealings with Saint Peter. By him he was so well instructed in the faith that he afterward wrote much in praise of the Christian religion and practices; and these writings as Jerome attests are reckoned among the books called Ecclesiastes.

And foremost of all he wrote enlightening interpretations upon the five books of Moses, and many other works. He had already reached an advanced age when he went to Rome 40 CE on an embassy to the emperor Caligula in order to procure the revocation of a decree that exacted from the Jews divine homage to the statue of the emperor. His most important works treat of the books of Moses, and are generally cited under different titles. His great object was to reconcile the Hebrew Scriptures with the doctrines of Greek philosophy, and to point out the conformity between the two.

He maintained that the fundamental truths of the former were derived from the Mosaic revelation, and to work out an agreement, he had recourse to an allegorical interpretation of the books of Moses. Agrippina was born to Marcus Agrippa by Julia, the daughter of the emperor Octavian. She was the mother of the emperor Caius Caligula and was esteemed among the intelligent and renowned women. She was, in those times, deliberately caused so much sorrow by the emperor Tiberius, that she starved herself to death.

She was married in her youth to Germanicus, a handsome and virtuous youth, whom Tiberius had been obliged to adopt. She bore him three sons. One, called Caligula, afterward ruled over the Romans. She also bore him three daughters, one of whom was called Agrippina and was the mother of Nero.

Her husband was done away with by poison through Tiberius; and because she mourned the death of her husband with great lamentations, as was the custom of women, Tiberius therefore hated her, and those of his people who held her by the arms increased her sorrow by mockery and unbecoming conduct.

She determined to escape his haughtiness by starvation, and soon she refrained from eating her food. When Tiberius learned of this, being accustomed to compel women to eat by threats and beatings, he caused her to be fed by force. But being still more embittered against Tiberius in consequence, she gradually accomplished her own death by this means. And as by her death she earned much praise on the part of her own people, so she at the same time caused Tiberius much harm and ill repute.

Vipsanius Agrippa and of Julia, the daughter of Augustus, married Germanicus, by whom she had nine children, among whom was the emperor Caligula, and Agrippina, the mother of Nero. On his death in 17 CE she returned to Italy; but the favor in which she was received by the people increased the hatred and jealousy which Tiberius and his mother Livia had long entertained toward her. For some years Tiberius disguised his hatred, but at length under the pretext that she was forming ambitious plans, he banished her to the island of Pandataria 30 CE , where she died three years later, probably by voluntary starvation.

Agrippa the Great, son of king Aristobulus, succeeded his father and ruled over the Jews for seven years. He was by nature a good man, and he adorned the city of Jerusalem at his own expense. But the son of Aristobulus, whom the father of Herod killed, came to Tiberius; but as the latter would not entertain his complaint, he stayed at Rome to secure assistance by various means. Now Agrippa was very friendly with Caius Caligula , the son of Germanicus, and after he said that Germanicus should be emperor, he was accused before Tiberius, and by him imprisoned and held in severe confinement for six months, until the death of Tiberius, when he was liberated by Caius, who gave him the region called Philippi, and so made him a king.

In lieu of the iron chain that he wore in prison, Caius gave him a golden one. When he left Rome and came to Jerusalem, he went into the temple and made a sacrifice, and there hung up the same chain as a perpetual memorial. But as he finally went to Caesarea, and permitted himself to be called a god, he was slain by an angel, and with a bloated body he said: I was formerly called a god, so now here I lie in the bondage of death.

He died at the age of 57 years, and left a seventeen-year-old son Agrippa, and three daughters, Berenice, Maria, and Drusilla. He had a brother named Herod, king of Chalcis, who acted as regent for the young king. Having given offense to Tiberius, he was imprisoned; but Caligula, on his accession, released him, and gave him the tetrarchies of Abilene, Batanaea, Trachonitis, and Auranitis. On the death of Caligula, Agrippa, who was at the time in Rome, assisted Claudius in gaining possession of the empire. As a reward for his services Judea and Samaria were annexed to his dominions.

His government was mild and gentle, and he was exceedingly popular among the Jews. It was probably to increase his popularity with them that he caused the apostle James to be beheaded, and Peter to be cast into prison. The manner of his death that took place in the same year at Caesarea 44 CE is related in Acts According to Acts "upon a certain day Herod, arrayed in royal apparel, sat upon his throne, and made an oration to them.

And the people gave a shout, saying, It is the voice of a god and not of a man. And immediately the angel of the Lord struck him, because he gave not God the glory; and he was eaten by worms, and gave up the Spirit. Regensburg Ratisbona , the celebrated and memorable free city on the Danube, was built by Tiberius Nero in the year Jesus Christ suffered for the salvation of the human race; and at one time it was the capital city of Bavaria.

In ancient times this region was occupied by the Norici, for which reason a portion of it is still called Norica to this day. After the Norici came the Baioaria; and it is now called Bavaria. This same Bavarian name originated from the Boii,[Boii, one of the most powerful of the Celtic people, said to have originally dwelt in Gaul Transalpine , but in what part of the country is uncertain.

At an early time they migrated in two great swarms, one of which crossed the Alps and settled in the country between the Po and the Apennines; the other crossed the Rhine and settled in that part of Germany called Boihemum Bohemia after them, and between the Danube and the Tyrol. The Boii in Germany were subdued by the Marcomanni, and expelled from the country. They were subsequently called Norici by the Romans after their capital Noreia. Although, according to Strabo, this region was at one time a wilderness, it is now built up, and has renowned cities and noble fortifications.

But of these Regensburg excels all others in beauty. In Bavaria there are five episcopal cities. The capital is the archi-episcopal city of Salzburg, so called from the river on which it lies. The ancients called it Juvanum or Juvavia , that is, Helffenburg. The bishopric of Regensburg was very celebrated, and all of Bohemia was subject to it. The city has seven names: Firstly, it is named Tiberina, or Tiburina, after its builder; for Tiberius, son of Livia, the wife of Augustus, and step-son of Augustus, was sent by Augustus with a great army against the Norici, or Bavarians, and against the Vindelici.

He subdued them; and he built the city; and after him it was called Tiberina. Secondly, for some time the city was called Quadrata, the square city; for it was built in that form and was surrounded by a wall of large square stones, of which remains may be seen behind St. The Danube, Nab, and Regen flow into one another toward the north. Fourthly, it was called Germansheim, after the German people who frequented the city; or after Germanicus, who ruled over the city.

Fifthly, Reginopolis, or Koenigsburg, because kings and princes assembled there, as the palatial towers and tall buildings of the lords indicate. Sixthly, it was named after the river Imber in German, Regen ;[ Imber , the Latin for rainwater; water or liquid in general; a rain cloud or storm cloud. The German regen means rain. For it the city was named Regensburg, which name has remained to this day. Seventhly, it is called Ratisbona, after the small merchant vessels or boats that came there, and the vessels that during the war laid about it for protection in the time of Charlemagne.

And the city was strengthened with fortifications, and is to this day is called Ratisbona in the Latin. The Danube,. It flows by this renowned city, and over it is a very strong bridge with many arches built in the year of the Lord one thousand one hundred and fifteen. The most Christian emperor, Charlemagne Karolus Magnus , subjugated the whole of Bavaria by force of arms; but Taxillo Taxilo , the Duke of Bavaria, together with his neighbors, the Huns, made war against Charlemagne.

Before long he made peace with them, receiving a number of hostages. And he turned against the city of Regensburg and the unbelievers in it, capturing the city and compelling them to accept the Christian faith. In the same war a great number of unbelievers and Huns were slain before Regensburg.

Charlemagne lost a number of men there, who lie buried in the Basilica of St. Peter outside the city. Afterwards this city greatly prospered and increased, and was thereafter adorned with an episcopal church dedicated to St. Before that time it was called the church of St. Many fictions have grown up around his name; for example, that he anointed Clovis with oil from the sacred ampulla, and that Pope Hormisdas had recognized him as primate of France.

The city is also adorned with a large cloister, that of St. Emmeran, of the Benedictine Order. Here also are two abbeys to Our Lady, an upper and a lower, and in the lower, Bishop Erhard lies at rest. Many houses in this city have consecrated churches and their own priests. Emperor Arnolfus, out of particular affection for this city above all other cities of the realm, enlarged it with a wall, comprehending the cloister of St. Emmeran, which he beautified. Then, as he returned from battle between the Normans and the Bavarians, he gave the relics of St.

Dionysius the Areopagite to this cloister in his old age, together with a beautiful book of Gospels written in letters of gold; and finally he was buried there.

This city is glorified by the esteemed martyr St. Emmeran, the bishop, and with St. Wolfgang, the eleventh bishop of the city, who worked wonders there and built St. So also Albertus Magnus, a man highly informed in learning and all the arts, officiated here as bishop. Regensburg, or Ratisbona, a very ancient city in that part of Bavaria, formerly called Rhaetia secunda, is a city and Episcopal see of Germany, and the capital of the government district of the Upper Palatinate. It is situated on the right bank of the Danube, opposite the influx of the Regen, 86 miles northeast of Munich, and 60 miles southeast of Nuremberg.

The pre-Roman settlement of Radespona was chosen by the Romans, who named it Castra Regina, as the center of their power on the upper Danube. It was made an Episcopal see in the eighth century by Boniface, and from the eleventh to the fourteenth century it was one of the most flourishing and populous cities of Germany. It became the seat of the dukes of Bavaria and was the focus from which Christianity spread over southern Germany. Emmeran founded an abbey here in the seventh century. Regensburg acquired the freedom of the empire in the thirteenth century.

It became the chief seat of the trade with India and the Levant, and the boatmen of Regensburg are frequently heard of expediting the journeys of the Crusaders. Numerous imperial diets were held here in the Middle Ages, and from to it was the permanent seat of the Imperial Diet. The Reformation found only temporary acceptance at Regensburg, and was met by a counterreformation inspired by the Jesuits. Before this time the city had almost wholly lost its commercial importance owing to changes in the great highways of trade. Regensburg is said to have suffered in all no fewer than 17 sieges.

By the peace of Luneville it was adjudged to the primate Dalberg, and in the town and bishopric were ceded to Bavaria, after the disastrous defeat of the Austrians beneath its walls the preceding year, when part of the town had been reduced to ashes. To see what your friends thought of this book, please sign up. To ask other readers questions about The Beginning Of Woes , please sign up. Be the first to ask a question about The Beginning Of Woes. Lists with This Book.

This book is not yet featured on Listopia. Community Reviews. Showing Rating details. All Languages. More filters. Sort order. Ruth Socash rated it it was amazing Mar 13, There are no discussion topics on this book yet. About Paul B. Peter a great deal is known; about his successors, considerably less. For the early popes the main written source is the "Liber Pontificalis.

The author had access to earlier written sources, but he was not rigidly critical. Since there are a number of mistakes which historians have checked, the "Liber Pontificalis," though valuable, is scarcely to be considered infallible. It is, however, the best written source extant for many of the early popes. Linus, according to the "Liber Pontificalis," was an Italian from Tuscany. His father's name was Herculanus. He died a martyr and was buried on the Vatican near St. It is probable that St. Paul refers to him when he writes from Rome to Timothy, "Eubulus and Pudens and Linus and Claudia and all the brethren salute thee" 2 Tim.

Little as is known of St. Linus, churchgoers can be reminded of him every time they see a woman in church wearing a hat or kerchief, for it is said that it was this second pope who decreed that women should enter church only with heads covered. The feast of St. Linus is celebrated on September Cletus has given earlier historians some trouble because of his name.

Two of the early lists of the popes, the so-called "Liberian Catalogue" and the "Poem Against Marcion" list an Anacletus as well as a Cletus. Most ancient lists, however, give the papal succession as Peter, Linus, Cletus, Clement; and modern scholars agree that this is the correct listing. Anacletus is a variant of Cletus, and this seems to have caused the difficulty. Cletus was a Roman. His father's name was Emilianus. Cletus ruled the Church from some time in the reign of the Emperor Vespasian to some time in the reign of Domitian.

He was martyred and buried near St. Peter on the Vatican. Cletus' feast is celebrated along with that of St. Marcellinus on the twenty-sixth of April. Clement, according to tradition, was ordained by Peter himself. Some early writers, indeed, thought that Clement was Peter's immediate successor, but modern scholars agree that he is Peter's third successor.

Clement has been identified with the Clement mentioned by St. Paul in his Epistle to the Philippians; but that Clement seems to have been a Philippian. For a time there were some who identified St. Clement with T. Flavius Clemens, a cousin of the Emperors Titus and Domitian. This is especially appealing because it is highly probable that the noble Roman was a martyr in the persecution of his cousin Domitian.

Against this romantic theory is the prosaic fact that the early writers make no mention at all of this. Surely if the fourth pope had been a cousin of the Emperor, it would have been widely heralded. Modern scholars think that St. Clement was a freedman or the son of a freedman of the imperial household. It is doubtful whether he was of Jewish or Gentile origin.

Some would argue for Jewish descent because his famous epistle is so steeped in the Old Testament. This is about all that is known for certain of Clement's death. The Greek "Acts of the Martyrs" written in the fourth century gives many and interesting details. Clement was exiled by the Emperor Trajan to the Chersonese, modern Crimea. There the holy Pope worked with such zeal among the prisoners laboring in the mines that he was condemned to death. He was thrown into the sea with an anchor tied around his neck. This is probable enough, but the story goes on to say that the sea flowed back a mile or so to reveal the body of the saint resting in a beautiful marble shrine.

In the ninth century, St. Cyril, the Apostle of the Slavs, discovered some bones and an anchor in a Crimean mound.

Clement's Basilica. Whether or not these bones are authentic, St. Clement left us a real relic of the highest value in his famous letter to the Corinthians. This epistle, which modern scholars agree is authentic, rebukes the Corinthians for a schism which had broken out in their church. Written while one of the apostles was still alive, this letter of Clement is the first great non- inspired Christian document.

It is interesting indeed that it shows the fourth pope interfering to put another apostolic church in order. Clement is celebrated on November He ruled the Church while Domitian, Nerva, and Trajan were emperors. His pontificate saw the end of Domitian's tyranny and the start of the Antonine dynasty. According to the "Liber Pontificalis" this pope divided Rome into parishes. This, however, is generally believed by modern scholars to be a later organization. He also appointed seven deacons to check the preaching of a bishop for possible slips which might have dogmatic implications. This might refer to the prefaces of the mass where sometimes a sermon was added to the prayer recalling the feast.

Evaristus is said to have ordained fifteen bishops, seven priests, and two deacons. Of his death nothing is known except that according to tradition he was a martyr. Evaristus is buried near St. His feast is celebrated on October The next Pope was, according to the "Liber Pontificalis," a Roman named, like his father before him, Alexander.

Alexander is said to have introduced into the Mass the prayer just before the Consecration which recalls the memory of Christ's passion. He is also credited with the order that houses should be blessed with water to which salt had been added. Alexander's death has caused confusion among scholars because an account of the death of another St.

Alexander, who was not a bishop, tallies somewhat closely with the account of the Pope's martyrdom in the "Liber Pontificalis. The traditional account of St. Alexander's martyrdom is that he was beheaded on the Via Nomentana within seven miles of the city of Rome, along with Eventius, a priest, and Theodulus, a deacon. Alexander was buried on the Via Nomentana near the spot where he suffered. His feast, together with that of Sts. Eventius and Theodulus, is celebrated on May 3. According to the "Liber Pontificalis" St.

Sixtus was a Roman, the son of Pastor. He ruled the Church in the time of Emperor Hadrian. Pope Sixtus I decreed that the sacred vessels should not be touched except by the clergy. This is one of several ordinances attributed to the early popes regarding the sacredness of the ceremonial vessels. Sixtus also decreed that a bishop who had been summoned to Rome should not be received by his people when he returned until he presented the letter of greeting from the Apostolic See.

Another very interesting ordinance attributed to Pope Sixtus I is the one which orders the priest after the preface to sing the Sanctus with the people. The heavens and earth are filled with Thy glory, Hosanna in the highest. Blessed is He Who cometh in the name of the Lord. Hosanna in the highest.

The Chronicles of Marcus, Son of Simon Peter : Book Iii: the Lesser of Evils for the Greater Good

Pope St. Sixtus I was martyred, but there are no available details of his death. He was buried on the Vatican near St. Pope Clement X gave some relics of St. Sixtus I to the well-known seventeenth century French Cardinal de Retz. He put them in the Abbey of St. Michael in Lorraine. The feast of Pope St. Sixtus I is kept on April 6. St Telesphorus was a Greek who had been an anchorite.

He ruled the Church in the time of Emperor Antoninus Pius. To St. Telesphorus are attributed some church practices which endure down to this day. Telesphorus ordered a fast for seven weeks before Easter. That the Lenten fast goes back even before the time of Telesphorus, St. Irenaeus gives testimony. But the length of the fast varied considerably in those early days.

It is probable enough that Pope St. Telesphorus did make some regulation as to the length of the Lenten fast.


  • The Beginning Of Woes by Paul B. Dyal.
  • Coordinating Public Debt and Monetary Management.
  • Expert Textpert: The Beatle Dictionary.
  • Loose Ends.

A custom much loved even today is also attributed to St. He is said to have ordered that although Mass was not celebrated before the hour of tierce i. This is the first mention of the beloved midnight Mass. However, scholars doubt whether this decree actually does go back to the time of St. Telesphorus is said also to have decreed that the Gloria in excelsis should be sung at the Christmas Mass and only at the Christmas Mass.

This magnificent hymn of praise is not said at all Masses even today. As late as the eleventh century, though the Pope could say it oftener, priests were not allowed to say it except at Easter. Telesphorus died a martyr as is known not only from the "Liber Pontificalis" but also from the earlier testimony of St. He was buried near St. His feast is kept on January 5 in the Roman liturgy and February 22 in the Greek. Hyginus was a Greek. According to the "Liber Pontificalis" he had been a philosopher, but modern scholars are inclined to think that he is confused with a Latin author of the same name.

During the pontificate of St. Hyginus the heretics Valentinus and Cerdo came to Rome. Cerdo, as Eusebius tells us in his Ecclesiastical History, was in and out of the Church a number of times. He would teach error, repent, and then fall back into error again. Since this is the first mention of heresy in these lives, it might be helpful to explain just what is meant by heresy and heretic.

Heresy is a diluted or perverted Christianity. The English word comes from the Greek word which means a choosing. A heretic is one who chooses what he will believe of Christ's teaching. The particular heresy taught by Valentinus and Cerdo was Gnosticism. Valentinus, indeed, was an outstanding teacher of Gnosticism. He taught that Jesus is a higher being who, though not God, is gradually being purified, and will lead the elect with Him into the pleroma or "fullness. Hyginus did some organizing of the clergy. According to tradition he died a martyr, but the ancient writers are silent on this point.

His feast is kept on January His father's name was Rufinus. He was a brother of the famous Hermas, the author of "The Shepherd," a precious early Christian document. Hermas in this work says that he was a slave and then a freedman. This, however, is quite possibly a fictional device of the author. If it is true, it would indicate that St.

Pius was of a low social origin. Pius had to cope with the Gnostic heretics who were active at Rome during his reign. The Pope excommunicated a Gnostic leader named Marcion, who thereupon set up his own church. But if heretics afflicted the soul of St. Pius, he must have been consoled by the visit of St. Justin, the great defender of Christianity. Justin was a convert from paganism.

He had a restless desire for truth which had led him through the Stoic, Platonic, and Pythagorean schools of philosophy to the Bible and Christianity. Not content with securing peace of soul through Christ, Justin wrote much to defend Christ's doctrines, and finally died a martyr. According to the "Liber Pontificalis," Pope St. Pius ordered that a heretic coming from the Jews should be received and baptized.

This is somewhat obscure, and it is not certain whether he meant a heretic in the modern sense, i. Later legend credits St. Pius with establishing the two Roman churches of St. Pudens and St. Praxedes, but this lacks historical justification. Pius is honored as a martyr by the Church.

His feast is kept on July Anicetus was a Syrian from Emesa. His father's name was John. His pontificate is interesting because during it the controversy over the date for celebrating Easter appears for the first but by no means the last time. At this period the Eastern Christians, following the tradition of St. John and St. Philip, celebrated the feast of the Lord's resurrection on the fourteenth day of the Jewish month Nisan, the day on which Jesus ate the Paschal Supper. The Western Christians, on the other hand, celebrated the feast of the resurrection on the Sunday following the fourteenth Nisan.

This seemed proper because although it would not always be the actual date of the Lord's resurrection, it would be the day. And this is the reason that Sunday was already holy in Christian tradition. Against the authority of St. Philip, the West urged the tradition of St.

Peter and St. Now one of the most venerated figures in the mid-second century church was St. Polycarp, the bishop of Smyrna. This old man, at the time in his eighties, was a disciple of the apostle St. By the fifties of the second century he must have been one of the last. Polycarp, naturally devoted to the practices he had learned from the apostle, wished to have the whole church celebrate Easter on the fourteenth Nisan. Accordingly, he came to Rome to confer with the Pope. Pope Anicetus was not convinced, but in turn he failed to convince Polycarp of the value of the Western date.

Since this was not a question of doctrine but only of discipline, the Pope graciously allowed the venerable old saint to return to Smyrna and go on celebrating Easter on the date he had learned from St. Another distinguished visitor to Rome in the time of St. Anicetus was Hegesippus, perhaps the earliest Church historian outside the sacred authors. An interesting disciplinary decree is attributed to St. Anicetus by the Liber Pontificalis. He forbade the clergy to grow long hair after the precept of St.

Paul I Cor. Anicetus died a martyr and was buried on the Vatican. His feast is kept April Soter was a Campanian from Fundi, the modern Fondi. His father's name was Concordius. He decreed that no monk should touch the consecrated altar cloth or offer incense in church. Some manuscripts read "nun" instead of "monk" in the above prohibition. These meager details, given for what they are worth, are from the sixth- century "Liber Pontificalis," but for St. Soter there is a very interesting reference in the early fourth-century "Ecclesiastical History of Eusebius.

Dionysius, bishop of Corinth, says IV, xxiii, 9- 15 : "There is moreover, extant a letter of Dionysius to the Romans addressed to Soter who was then bishop, and there is nothing better than to quote the words in which he welcomes the custom of the Romans which was observed down to the persecution in our own times.

Your blessed bishop Soter has not only carried on the habit but has even increased it, by administering the bounty distributed to the saints and by exhorting with his blessed words the brethren who come to Rome, as a loving father would his children. Soter was very charitable. It also indicates the high respect the Corinthians had for the letter of Pope St. Clement and the letter of Soter. The "persecution in our own times" mentioned by Eusebius was the persecution of Diocletian.

The words of Eusebius are testimony that the Roman See was as preeminent in charity as it was in dignity. Soter was buried in the cemetery of Calixtus. He is honored by the Church as a martyr. His feast together with that of St. Caius, is celebrated on April According to the "Liber Pontificalis," St.

Eleutherius was a Greek from Nicopolis in Epirus. His father's name was Habundius. He ordered that no food which was fit for a human being should be despised by Christians. This decree, if authentic, probably was aimed at the Montanists, a fanatical puritanical sect, or the Manicheans, who despised meat. Irenaeus, the famous father of the Church, was sent by St. Pothinus and the clergy of Lyons to confer with Pope Eleutherius about Montanism. Unfortunately Eusebius, who narrates the fact, did not preserve the details of this interesting mission. Montanism was a peculiar exaggeration or parody of Christianity started by a Phrygian ex-priest of Cybele, Montanus.

This man taught that inspiration and ecstasy rather than the hierarchy should guide the faithful, that martyrdom should be rashly sought, that marriage was wrong, and that Montanus was, if not the Holy Ghost himself, the authentic herald of the Holy Ghost. In a modified form this heresy infiltrated into the West. Since its most common manifestation was an exaggerated strictness and since at first in the West it did not seek to break away from the Church, it is not surprising that it took a little time before it was discovered for the heresy it was. It is not clear whether Pope St.

Eleutherius condemned Montanism at this time. A very interesting item in the "Liber Pontificalis" concerns the reception by Pope Eleutherius of a letter from Lucius, the king of Britain, asking for instruction in the Christian faith: very interesting but almost certainly untrue. Britain at this time was a Roman province. It is true that some high land chief from beyond the wall might call himself king, but it is quite unlikely that such a remote red-shanks should have written to Rome.

The early British historian Gildas makes not the slightest mention of such an incident. Most modern scholars agree that the story is apocryphal. An interesting theory advanced by some modern scholars is that the author of the "Liber Pontificalis" or a copyist confused Lucius, king of Britain, with Lucius, king Britium in Mesopotamia. Eleutherius was buried near St. Peter in the Vatican. His feast is kept on May 6. Victor's reign is noted for a lull in the persecution and a crisis in the Easter controversy. He decreed that after an emergency baptism, whether in river, spring, sea, or marsh, the neophyte should be treated as a Christian in full standing.

The lull in the persecution was due to a woman named Marcia, who seems to have been a sort of morganatic wife of the Emperor Commodus. Marcia had great influence on Commodus. Friendly to Christianity, she used this influence to soften the lot of the hard-pressed Christians. She asked Pope Victor for a list of the Christians condemned to work in the mines of Sardinia and secured the release of these poor victims.

At this time the controversy over the day for celebrating Easter came to a head. In Rome, where there lived many Asiatics, it must have been disconcerting to see one group of Christians observing the fast of lent and commemorating Christ's passion while other Christians were joyously celebrating the feast of the resurrection.

Pope Victor determined to put a stop to this and ordered Polycrates, bishop of Ephesus, to hold a council of Asiatic bishops and get them to follow the Western custom of celebrating Easter on Sunday. Polycrates did indeed assemble the bishops, but informed the Pope that neither he nor the Asiatic bishops could abandon the tradition of St.

Pope Victor put his foot down and ordered the Church to celebrate Easter on Sunday. All but the bishops of Asia Minor obeyed. Thereupon Victor excommunicated them. Irenaeus, now bishop of Lyons, pleaded with the Pope that after all, was only a matter of discipline and that the Pope's illustrious predecessors had allowed the divers of dates. Furthermore, St. Irenaeus argued, it was a sad thing for the glorious see of Ephesus to be cut off from Catholic unity.

Pope Victor, convinced, seems to have relented. At any rate after this time the practice of celebrating Easter on Sunday spread throughout the East. Right at Rome a certain Blastus refused to obey the Pope and started a little church of his own. The Pope also had to excommunicate Theodotus, leather seller who had come from Byzantium Rome. This tanner denied the divinity of Christ and also set up a little church of his own.

The Gnostics too gave trouble to Victor. Victor wrote several treatises including probably one on dice throwers. Jerome calls him the first Latin writer in the Church. Victor died a martyr and was buried on the Vatican near St. The pontificate of this first third-century pope was to see a storm of heresy rage around the pontiff, who had to keep a firm hand on the tiller of Peter's bark. He ordered that all ordinations, whether of priests, deacons, or simple clerics, should take place before the assembled clergy and laity.

The storm which agitated Christian thought in the time of Pope Zephyrinus was due to a double heresy.

Paul B. Dyal (Author of The Beginning Of Woes)

On the one hand, Theodotus the Tanner, though excommunicated by Pope St. Victor, was still teaching that Christ was not the true Son of God. On the other hand, a certain Praxeas came to Rome to tell Pope Zephyrinus that the old idea of the Trinity was all wrong, that really there were not three Persons in one Divine Nature, but only three modes of one substance.

Pope Zephyrinus, who was no philosopher, clung firmly to the traditional doctrine handed down from the Apostles. In the midst of these metaphysical storms, he also had a good strong adviser in Calixtus, who succeeded him as Pope. Eusebius in his "Ecclesiastical History" has an interesting story about the heretics in the pontificate of Pope Zephyrinus. Theodotus the Tanner, far from being silenced by Pope Victor's excommunication, had set up his own church.

He had found backers in another Theodotus a banker and Asclepediotus. The heretics found a man of some prestige to be bishop for them. This was Natalius, who had been a confessor of the faith and had suffered tortures for it. But as Eusebius tells the story, Jesus, not wishing that one who had suffered for him should go out of the church, sent angels in visions to bring Natalius to a better frame of mind. Natalius, blinded by the pinchbeck glory of being a heretical bishop, at first paid the visions little attention.

But one night the angels gave the stubborn fellow a sound whipping. This brought him to his senses. He put on sack- cloth, covered himself with ashes and hastened to throw himself before Pope Zephyrinus and plead for pardon. Besides heresy, Pope Zephyrinus had to cope with renewed persecution. Septimius Severus, friendly at the start of his reign, became decidedly hostile.

During the pontificate of Zephvrinus the Emperor issued his famous decree forbidding anyone to become a Christian. Zephyrinus is honored as a martyr by the Church. He was buried in his own cemetery or August His feast is kept on August Caliztus or Callistus was a Roman from the Trastevere district. His father's name was Domitius. He decreed a fast from corn, wine, and oil three times a year.

These fasts together with the lenten fast make up the fasts of the four seasons which the Ember days prescribe even to today. Pope Calixtus is said to have built a basilica across the Tiber in his native Trastevere district. He constructed a cemetery on the Appian Way which is one of the most famous of Christian cemeteries. In it are buried many popes and martyrs. The "Liber Pontificalis" gives the above information, but Calixtus is chiefly known from the writings of his enemies.

Hippolytus accused him of being too friendly to the Monarchian heretics in spite of the fact that Calixtus condemned Sabellius, the leader of that heresy. Both Hippolytus and Tertullian were deeply outraged by an act of the Pope which would endear him to most and shows him to be a true disciple of the merciful Christ. In the early Church there was a strong tendency to rigorism. Some bishops had refused to receive back into communion apostates, adulterers, and murderers. Such sinners, no matter how deeply they might repent, would remain excommunicated until death. By the time of Calixtus this practice had become general in the Church.

How painful for repentant sinners this must have been can easily be imagined. Calixtus decreed that all sinners who truly repented could be absolved and received back into the Church after suitable penance. The grim Tertullian, infected with Montanist puritanism, was furious. Hippolytus went so far as to set himself up as antipope. Both wrote bitterly against the mercy of Pope Calixtus. Calixtus died a martyr. He was buried in the Cemetery of Calipodius on the Aurelian Way. His feast is kept on October Urban's name is familiar to many because of his supposed connection with the beautiful life of St.

According to the "Liber Pontificalis," he was a Roman, the son of Pontius. He had all the sacred vessels made of silver, and presented to the Church twenty-five silver patens. It seems that in the early Church glass as well as silver was a favorite material for the sacred vessels. He converted many and among them Valerian, the husband of St. Actually, it is pretty clear that this Urban did not have any dealings with St. The "Liber Pontificalis" seems to have relied on the fifth- century Passion of St. This is an account of St. Cecilia's martyrdom which is embroidered with legend.

That St. Cecilia was a noble Roman lady who was martyred is certain, but her martyrdom goes back to an earlier time than the reign of Pope Urban. As a matter of fact, Pope Urban lived in times of comparative peace for the Church. The Emperor Alexander Severus, a mild man, even had a statue of Jesus in his collection of gods.

Nor was his prefect, the great lawyer Ulpian, a persecutor. Alexander was influenced by his mother Julia Mammaea, who was a friend of the great Christian writer Origen. He even decided a lawsuit in favor of the Christians. The Christians were disputing the title to some land with a tavern keeper.

The Emperor decided in favor of the Christians, saying that it was better to have God worshipped on the land in question than a tavern set up. Urban was buried in the Cemetery of Calixtus. His feast is kept on May Pontian was a Roman, the son of Calpurnius. He had to face a flare-up of persecution. Alexander Severus was assassinated in His successor, Maximinus, an ex-wrestler, had no great preoccupation with matters of religion, but he hated Alexander Severus, and since Alexander had favored the Christians, Maximinus hastened to persecute them.

He ordered that the leaders of the Church should alone be struck. And so St. Pontian found himself hustled off to the mines of Sardinia. In the mines he had as companion none other than the antipope Hippolytus. This priest, it may be remembered, had been so disgusted with Pope Calixtus and his edict of mercy that he had revolted and set himself up as antipope. Now in the mines of Sardinia he came to a better frame of mind.

Not only did he become reconciled with St. Pontian, but he ordered all his followers to return to the Church. He made a good end, dying a confessor of Christ, and it is touching that down to this day, the Church celebrates the feast of St. Pontian, the Pope, and St. Hippolytus, once antipope, on the same day, November Pontian seems to have abdicated when sent to the mines and to have been succeeded at Rome by Anterus. At any rate, in November he was brutally beaten to death, a martyr for Christ.

Pope Fabian brought his body back to Rome and buried him in the Cemetery of Calixtus. Anterus was elected Pope even before the death of St. Pontian, evidently considering that he could not rule the Church efficiently from a Sardinian mine, abdicated. Anterus, according to the "Liber Pontificalis," was a Greek, the son of Romulus.

He ruled the Church for a very short time, about forty days.